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Professor DIMO KASHCHIEV, Ph.D., D.Sc.

Prof. Dimo Kashchiev
Institute of Physical Chemistry
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
ul. Acad. G. Bonchev, blok 11
Sofia 1113


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    Professor Dimo Kashchiev graduated in physics in 1968 at Sofia University in Sofia, Bulgaria after presenting a theoretical M.Sc. thesis on nonstationary nucleation. In the same year he joined the Institute of Physical Chemistry at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia. In this Institute he took the position of Research Professor in 1989. In 1975 he defended a Ph.D. thesis on the kinetic theory of nucleation, and in 1987 he obtained the degree of Doctor of Science for a thesis on the theory of nucleation and growth of new phases. In 2004 he became Corresponding Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    In 1970 he specialized for two months in the Laboratory for Crystal Growth of Prof. A. A. Chernov at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia. In 1975-1976 he was a postdoctoral research felow for one year in the Laboratory for Crystal Growth of Prof. P. Bennema at the Delft University of Technology in Delft, The Netherlands.
    Professor Kashchiev was Visiting Professor (by invitation) at Delft University of Technology in Delft, The Netherlands, Hiroshima University in Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan, Rice University in Houston, Texas, University of Leeds in Leeds, UK, and Reservoir Engineering Research Institute in Palo Alto, California.


    Professor Kashchiev's research work is concentrated on the theory of nucleation and growth of new phases and its application to nucleation phenomena, adsorption, crystal growth, overall crystallization, electrocrystallization, nucleation and growth of thin solid films, stability and permeability of foam, emulsion and membrane bilayers, fibrillation of amyloid proteins. He has 144 scientific publications (until November 2015) with over 6500 citations, h-index of 38, and an average of 45 citations per publication. The main theoretical results obtained by him are in the field of nucleation, crystal growth, thin film formation and bilayer stability. Many of these results as well as his monograph on nucleation theory and its applications are well-known worldwide (for CITATION METRICS from Web of Science click here, and from Scholar Google click here). Most extensive utilization have found (see SELECTED PUBLICATIONS below):
- his solution of the non-steady state problem of nucleation,
- the nucleation theorem proven by him,
- his model of polylayer growth of thin solid films and their growth-mode transitions,
- his analysis of the kinetics of thin-film coalescence due to crystallite surface migration,
- the theory of hole-mediated stability and permeability of amphiphile bilayers,
- the results on the induction time and metastability limit in new-phase formation,
- the results on nucleation and crystallization of gas hydrates.



Nucleation, Crystal Growth, Crystallization

  • R.Kaischew, S.Stoyanov, D.Kashchiev, "Recent investigations on nucleation and crystal  growth processes", J.Cryst.Growth 52 (1981) 3-13.
  • D.Kashchiev, "The kinetic approach to nucleation", Cryst.Res.Technol. 19 (1984) 1413-1423.
  • I.Gutzow, D.Kashchiev, I.Avramov, "Nucleation and crystallization in glass-forming melts: old problems and new questions", J.Non-Cryst.Solids 73 (1985) 477-499.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nonstationary nucleation and its effect on mass crystallization", in: Industrial Crystallization 87, Eds. J.Nyvlt, S.Zacek, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 3-13.
  • M.C. van der Leeden, D.Verdoes, D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Induction time in seeded and unseeded precipitation", in: Advances in Industrial Crystallization, Eds. J.Garside, R.J.Davey, A.G.Jones, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1991, pp. 31-46.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation", in: Science and Technology of Crystal Growth, Eds. J.P. van der Eerden, O.S.L.Bruinsma, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995, pp. 53-66.
  • D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, “Review: nucleation in solutions revisited”, Cryst.Res.Technol. 38 (2003) 555-574.

Thin Solid Films

  • D.Kashchiev, "Recent progress in the theory of thin film growth", Surface Sci. 86 (1979) 14-27.
  • S.Stoyanov, D.Kashchiev, "Thin film nucleation and growth theories: a confrontation with experiment", in: Current Topics in Materials Science, Vol. 7, Ed. E.Kaldis, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981, pp. 69-141.

Foam, Emulsion and Membrane Bilayers

  • D.Exerowa, D.Kashchiev, "Hole-mediated stability and permeability of bilayers", Contemp.Phys. 27 (1986) 429-461.
  • D.Exerowa, D.Kashchiev, D.Platikanov, "Stability and permeability of amphiphile bilayers", Adv.Colloid Interface Sci. 40 (1992) 201-256.
  • D.Exerowa, D.Kashchiev, D.Platikanov, B.V.Toshev, "Linear energy with positive and negative sign", Adv.Colloid Interface Sci. 49 (1994) 303-339.




  • D.Kashchiev, "Solution of the non-steady state problem in nucleation kinetics", Surface Sci. 14 (1969) 209-220.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation at variable supersaturation", Surface Sci. 18 (1969) 293-297.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation at existing cluster size distributions", Surface Sci. 18 (1969) 389-397.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation at time-dependent supersaturation", Surface Sci. 22 (1970) 319-324.
  • I.Markov, D.Kashchiev, "The role of active centers in the kinetics of new phase formation", J.Cryst.Growth 13/14 (1972) 131-134.
  • I.Markov, D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation on active centres. I. General theory", J.Cryst.Growth 16 (1972) 170-176.
  • D.Kashchiev, "On the relation between nucleation work, nucleus size and nucleation rate", J.Chem.Phys. 76 (1982) 5098-5102.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation at changing density of monomers", Cryst.Res.Technol. 20 (1985) 723-731.
  • D.W.Oxtoby, D.Kashchiev, "A general relation between the nucleation work and the size of the nucleus in multicomponent nucleation", J.Chem.Phys. 100 (1994) 7665-7671.
  • D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Effect of pressure on nucleation in bulk solutions and solutions in pores and droplets",  J.Colloid Interface Sci. 169 (1995) 214-219.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Effect of carrier-gas pressure on nucleation", J.Chem.Phys. 104 (1996) 8671-8677.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Applications of the nucleation theorem”, in: “Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000”, Eds. B.N.Hale, M.Kulmala, Am.Inst.Phys., Melville, NY, 2000, pp. 147-150. (AIP Conf.Proc. 534 (2000) 147-150)
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Firoozabadi, “Nucleation of gas hydrates”, J.Cryst.Growth 243 (2002) 476-489.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Thermodynamically consistent description of the work to form a nucleus of any size”, J.Chem.Phys. 118 (2003) 1837-1851.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Determining the curvature dependence of surface tension”, J.Chem.Phys. 118 (2003) 9081-9083.
  • J.H. ter Horst, D.Kashchiev, “Determination of the nucleus size from the growth probability of clusters”, J.Chem.Phys. 119 (2003) 2241-2246.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Multicomponent nucleation: thermodynamically consistent description оf the nucleation work”, J.Chem.Phys. 120 (2004) 3749-3758.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Two-dimensional nucleation in crystal growth: thermodynamically consistent description of the nucleation work”, J.Cryst.Growth 267 (2004) 685-702.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Moments of the rate of nonstationary nucleation”, J.Chem.Phys. 122 (2005) 114506 (pp.1-6).
  • D.Kashchiev, P.G.Vekilov, A.B.Kolomeisky, “Kinetics of two-step nucleation of crystals”, J.Chem.Phys. 122 (2005) 244706 (pp.1-6).
  • J.H. ter Horst, D.Kashchiev, “Determining the nucleation rate from the dimer growth probability”, J.Chem.Phys. 123 (2005) 114507 (pp.1-5).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Forms and applications of the nucleation theorem”, J.Chem.Phys. 125 (2006) 014502 (pp.1-14).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Analysis of experimental data for the nucleation rate of water droplets”, J.Chem.Phys. 125 (2006) 044505 (pp.1-7).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Interrelation between cluster formation time, cluster growth probability and nucleation rate”, J.Chem.Phys. 127 (2007) 064505 (pp.1-8).
  • K.Ilnad, J.Wolk, R.Strey, D.Kashchiev, “Argon nucleation in a cryogenic nucleation pulse chamber”, J.Chem.Phys. 127 (2007) 154506 (pp.1-11).
  • J.H. ter Horst, D.Kashchiev, “Rate of two-dimensional nucleation: verifying classical and atomistic theories by Monte Carlo simulations”, J.Phys.Chem. B 112 (2008) 8614-8618.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Toward a better description of the nucleation rate of crystals and crystalline monolayers", J.Chem.Phys. 129 (2008) 164701 (pp.1-15).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Note: On the critical supersaturation for nucleation”, J.Chem.Phys. 134 (2011) 196102 (pp. 1-2).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Dependence of the overpressure for nucleation on the supersaturation ratio”, Compt.Rend.Acad.Bulg.Sci. 64 (2011) 677-682.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Magic cluster sizes in nucleation of crystals”, Cryst.Growth Des. 12 (2012) 3257-3262.
  • R.Cabriolu, D.Kashchiev, S.Auer, “Breakdown of nucleation theory for crystals with strongly anisotropic interactions between molecules”, J.Chem.Phys. 137 (2012) 204903 (pp.1-5).

Crystal Growth, Crystallization

  • I.Gutzow, D.Kashchiev, "Kinetics of overall crystallization of undercooled melts in terms of the nonsteady state theory of nucleation", in: Advances in Nucleation and Crystallization in Glasses, Eds. L.L.Hench, S.W.Freiman, Amer.Cer.Soc., Columbus, 1971, pp. 116-122.
  • D.B.Kashchiev, "Dispersion of the new phase in the early stages of mass crystallization", in: Growth of Crystals, Vol.11, Ed. A.A.Chernov, Consultants Bureau, New York, 1979, pp. 38-43.
  • W.Obretenov, D.Kashchiev, V.Bostanov, "Unified description of the rate of nucleation-mediated crystal growth", J.Cryst.Growth 96 (1989) 843-848.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Verdoes, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Induction time and metastability limit in new phase formation", J.Cryst.Growth 110 (1991) 373-380.
  • D.Verdoes, D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Determination of nucleation and growth rates from induction times in seeded and unseeded precipitation of calcium carbonate", J.Cryst.Growth 118 (1992) 401-413.
  • M.C. van der Leeden, D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Precipitation of barium sulphate: induction time and the effect of an additive on nucleation and growth", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 152 (1992) 338-350.
  • M.C. van der Leeden, D.Kashchiev, G.M. van Rosmalen, "Effect of additives on nucleation  rate, crystal growth rate and induction time in precipitation", J.Cryst.Growth 130 (1993) 221-232.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Clausse, C.Jolivet-Dalmazzone, "Crystallization and critical supercooling of disperse liquids", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 165 (1994) 148-153.
  • D.Kashchiev, N.Kaneko, K.Sato, "Kinetics of crystallization in polydisperse emulsions", J. Colloid Interface Sci. 208 (1998) 167-177.
  • D.Kashchiev, K.Sato, "Kinetics of crystallization preceded by metastable-phase formation", J.Chem.Phys. 109 (1998) 8530-8540.
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Firoozabadi, “Driving force for crystallization of gas hydrates”, J.Cryst.Growth 241 (2002) 220-230.
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Firoozabadi, “Induction time in crystallization of gas hydrates”, J.Cryst.Growth 250 (2003) 499-515.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Dependence of the growth rate of nanowires on the nanowire diameter”, Cryst.Growth Des. 6 (2006) 1154-1156.
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Borissova, R.B.Hammond, K.J.Roberts, "Effect of cooling rate on the critical undercooling for crystallization", J.Cryst.Growth 312 (2010) 698-704.
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Borissova, R.B.Hammond, K.J.Roberts, “Dependence of the critical undercooling for crystallization on the cooling rate”, J.Phys.Chem. B 114 (2010) 5441-5446.
  • M.Michailov, D.Kashchiev, “Thermal rupture of monatomic metal nanowires”, J.Phys.Conf.Ser. 398 (2012) 012010 (pp.1-7).
  • D.M.Camacho-Corzo, A.Borissova, R.B.Hammond, D.Kashchiev, K.J.Roberts, K.Lewtas, I.More, “Nucleation mechanism and kinetics from the analysis of polythermal crystallisation data: methyl stearate from kerosene solutions”, Cryst.Eng.Comm. 16 (2014) 974-991.
  • M.Michailov, D.Kashchiev, “Monatomic metal nanowires: rupture kinetics and mean lifetime”, Physica E 70 (2015) 21-27.

Fibrillation of Amyloid Proteins

  • S.Auer, D. Kashchiev, “Phase diagram of alpha-helical and beta-sheet forming peptides”, Phys.Rev.Lett. 104 (2010) 168105 (pp.1-4).
  • D.Kashchiev, S.Auer, “Nucleation of amyloid fibrils”, J.Chem.Phys. 132 (2010) 215101  (pp.1-10).
  • R.Cabriolu, D.Kashchiev, S.Auer, “Atomistic theory of amyloid fibril nucleation”, J.Chem.Phys. 133 (2010) 225101 (pp. 1-12).
  • S.Auer, D.Kashchiev, “Insight into the correlation between lag time and aggregation rate in the kinetics of protein aggregation”, Proteins 78 (2010) 2412-2416.
  • R.Cabriolu, D.Kashchiev, S.Auer, “Size distribution of amyloid nanofibrils”, Biophys.J. 101 (2011) 2232-2241.
  • S.Auer, P.Ricchiuto, D.Kashchiev, “Two-step nucleation of amyloid fibrils: omnipresent or not?”, J.Mol.Biol. 422 (2012) 723-730.
  • D.Kashchiev, R.Cabriolu, S.Auer, “Confounding the paradigm: peculiarities of amyloid fibril nucleation”, J.Am.Chem.Soc. 135 (2013) 1531-1539.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Protein fibrillation due to elongation and fragmentation of initially appeared fibrils: a simple kinetic model”, J.Chem.Phys. 139 (2013) 105103 (pp.1-10).
  • D.Kashchiev, “Kinetics of protein fibrillation controlled by fibril elongation”, Proteins 82 (2014) 2229-2239.
  • D.Kashchiev, “Protein polymerization into fibrils from the viewpoint of nucleation theory”, Biophys.J. 109 (2015) 2126-2136.

Gas Phase Formation

  • D.Kashchiev, A.Firoozabadi, "Kinetics of the initial stage of isothermal gas phase  formation", J.Chem.Phys. 98 (1993) 4690-4699.
  • A.Firoozabadi, D.Kashchiev, "Pressure and volume evolution during gas phase formation in solution gas drive processes", SPE J. 1 (1996) 219-227. (SPE 26286)

Thin Solid Films

  • D.Kashchiev, "Kinetics of thin film coalescence due to crystallite surface migration", Surface Sci. 55 (1976) 477-493.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Growth kinetics of dislocation-free interfaces and growth mode of thin films", J.Cryst.Growth 40( 1977) 29-46.
  • D.Kashchiev, J.P. van der Eerden, C. van Leeuwen, "Transition from island to layer growth of thin films: a Monte Carlo simulation", J.Cryst.Growth 40 (1977) 47-58.
  • J.P. van der Eerden, D.Kashchiev, P.Bennema, "Surface migration of small crystallites: a Monte Carlo simulation", J.Cryst.Growth 42 (1977) 31-34.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Mean thickness at which vapour-deposited thin films reach continuity", Thin Solid Films 55 (1978) 399-411.
  • D.Kashchiev, "On the saturation cluster density in deposition of thin films from vapours", Phys.Stat.Sol.(a) 55 (1979) 369-374.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Growth of crystallites in deposition from vapours", Phys.Stat.Sol.(a) 64 (1981) 715-721.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Growth shape of crystallites in thin film deposition", J.Cryst.Growth 67 (1984) 559-565.
  • A.Trayanov, D.Kashchiev, "Growth shape of crystallites on a substrate: a Monte Carlo simulation", J.Cryst.Growth 78 (1986) 399-407.
  • D.Kashchiev, Yu.O.Kanter, "Oscillations of specular beam intensity in reflection diffraction from the surface of a growing epitaxial film: a theoretical study", Phys.Stat.Sol.(a) 110 (1988) 61-76.

Adsorption, Electrodeposition

  • D.Kashchiev, A.Milchev, "Kinetics of the initial stage of electrolytic deposition of metals. I. General theory", Thin Solid Films 28 (1975) 189-200.
  • D.Kashchiev, A.Milchev, "Kinetics of the initial stage of electrolytic deposition of metals. II. Potentiostatic conditions", Thin Solid Films 28 (1975) 201-211.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Kinetics of the initial stage of electrolytic deposition of metals. III. Galvanostatic conditions", Thin Solid Films 29 (1975) 193-209.
  • J.P. van der Eerden, G.Staikov, D.Kashchiev, W.J.Lorenz, E.Budevski, "Mean field theory and Monte Carlo simulation of multisite adsorption", Surface Sci. 82 (1979) 364-382.
  • A.Popov, N.Dimitrov, D.Kashchiev, T.Vitanov, E.Budevski, "A model of the structural transformation processes in lead adsorbate on Ag(111) faces at low coverages", Electrochim.Acta 34 (1989) 269-271.
  • N.Dimitrov, A.Popov, D.Kashchiev, T.Vitanov, E.Budevski, "Experimental verification of the model of slow structural transformations in lead underpotential adsorbate on Ag(111) faces at low coverages", Electrochim.Acta 36 (1991) 1259-1262.
  • A.Popov, N.Dimitrov, D.Kashchiev, T.Vitanov, E.Budevski, "A model for the structural transformation processes in lead monolayer adsorbate on Ag(111) faces at high coverages", Electrochim.Acta 38 (1993) 387-391.
  • N.Dimitrov, A.Popov, D.Kashchiev, T.Vitanov, "Temperature dependence of the parameters characterizing the transformation processes in underpotential monolayer adsorbate of lead on Ag(111) at low and high coverages", Electrochim.Acta 39 (1994) 957-960.
  • A.Popov, N.Dimitrov, T.Vitanov, D.Kashchiev, E.Budevski, "Modelling transformation processes in underpotential lead adsorbate on Ag(111)", Electrochim.Acta 40 (1995) 1495-1499.
  • A.Popov, D.Kashchiev, N.Dimitrov, T.Vitanov, "Structural transformation process in underpotential monolayer adsorbates: two types of adsorption sites on the electrode", J.Cryst.Growth 171 (1997) 250-258.
  • V.Bostanov, E.Mladenova, D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation rate in electrocrystallization of cadmium on Cd(0001) crystal face", J.Electroanal.Chem. 481 (2000) 7-12.
  • D.Kashchiev, V.Bostanov, “Nucleation in electrochemical growth of the Ag(100) face: determining the nucleus size via the nucleation theorem”, J.Chem.Phys. 127 (2007) 244709 (pp.1-6).

Foam, Emulsion and Membrane Bilayers

  • D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, "Nucleation mechanism of rupture of Newtonian black films. I. Theory", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 77 (1980) 501-511.
  • D.Exerowa, B.Balinov, D.Kashchiev, "Nucleation mechanism of rupture of Newtonian black films. II. Experiment", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 94 (1983) 45-53.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, "Bilayer lipid membrane permeation and rupture due to hole formation", Biochim.Biophys.Acta 732 (1983) 133-145.
  • D.Exerowa, Z.Lalchev, D.Kashchiev, "Stability of foam lipid bilayers of amniotic fluid", Colloids Surfaces 10 (1984) 113-121.
  • D.Kashchiev, "On the stability of membrane, foam and emulsion bilayers with respect to rupture by hole nucleation", Colloid Polym.Sci. 265 (1987) 436-441.
  • M.Nedyalkov, R.Krustev, D.Kashchiev, D.Platikanov, D.Exerowa, "Permeability of Newtonian black foam films to gas", Colloid Polym.Sci. 266 (1988) 291-296.
  • A.Nikolova, D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, "Effect of temperature on the rupture of Newton black foam films", Colloids Surfaces 36 (1989) 339-351.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Thickness transitions in thin films: the equilibrium", Surface Sci. 220 (1989) 428-442.
  • D.Kashchiev, "Thickness transitions in thin films: the driving force", Surface Sci. 225 (1990) 107-116.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, "Lifetime of a foam bilayer in contact with an insoluble  monolayer", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 203 (1998) 146-152.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, “Structure and surface energy of the surfactant layer on the alveolar surface”, Eur.Biophys.J. 30 (2001) 34-41.
  • C.Stubenrauch, D.Kashchiev, R.Strey, “Phase diagrams of nonionic foam films: construction by means of disjoining pressure versus thickness curves”, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280 (2004) 244-255.
  • D.Kashchiev, D.Exerowa, "Effect of surfactant adsorption time on the observation of Newton black film in foam film", J.Colloid Interface Sci. 330 (2009) 404-407.